5G 4G 3G M2M and IoT antenna News
  • How to systematically implement advanced antenna architecture for LTE wireless devices
    How to systematically implement advanced antenna architecture for LTE wireless devices 2021-03-29
    How to systematically implement advanced antenna architecture for LTE wireless devices Expect to finish reading in 13 minutes With the substantial improvement of its connection reliability and transmission speed, LTE is rapidly developing all over the world. According to data from the Global Mobile Suppliers Association (GSA), more than 318 LTE networks have been put into commercial use in 111 countries and regions. There is a commonality in all of these LTE networks that have been commercialized and are being planned. They also need to realize the multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) requirements of LTE. These MIMO requirements will extend to base stations and terminal equipment. In the case of terminal equipment, there are several reasons that make MIMO a challenge, including the need for multiple antennas, the trend of continuous thinning, unprecedented frequency band separation, operator preference for low frequencies, and lack of experience in RF design. 3G requires only one antenna, while MIMO technology requires at least two antennas. The number of antennas will increase as MIMO is designed to be 4×4 and 8×8. With multiple LTE antennas (including 3G/2G backup antennas, GPS, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and NFC), finding space becomes more difficult. The high-end MIMO design conflicts with thinner and lighter devices. As devices become thinner and lighter, the internal space of smartphones and tablets is declining at a rate of 25% per year. The display screen and battery received the highest priority, while components such as the processor, memory, antenna system, and other components could only compete for the remaining space. On the one hand, there is a trend toward thinner; on the other hand, MIMO and low frequency bands (such as 700MHz) require a larger physical size antenna configuration. To meet these two needs at the same time, this gives original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and their The design team brings pressure that cannot be ignored. LTE operates in more than 40 frequency bands, covering from 450MHz to 2.7GHz, about half of which have been used in existing equipment. Establishing LTE global roaming for smartphones or tablets requires at least 40 frequency bands to be supported. In areas not covered by LTE, it is downgraded to the corresponding 3G standard. In these frequency bands, even in any small subset of frequency bands, it is challenging to find antenna space for the necessary 2×2 or more MIMO, plus antennas such as Wi-Fi and other technologies. It becomes even more difficult at times. Operators are always eager for lower capital expenditure (CapEx) and operating cost (OpEx), so low frequency bands become their best choice. The general experience is that lower frequency and lower density base stations will bring better revenue to operators. Lower frequency bands can also provide better indoor coverage, such as 700MHz. This frequency band can also meet the needs of the rapidly growing "Internet of Things" (IoT) market and pro...
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  • Antenna principle
    Antenna principle 2021-03-03
    Antenna principle Expect to finish reading in 9 minutes 1. Antenna principle 1.1 Definition of antenna: A device that can effectively radiate electromagnetic waves in a specific direction in space or can effectively receive electromagnetic waves from a specific direction in space. 1.2 The function of the antenna: Energy conversion-the conversion of guided traveling waves and free space waves; Directional radiation (receiving)-has a certain directionality. 1.3 Principle of antenna radiation 1.4 Antenna parameters Radiation parameters Half-power beam width, front-to-back ratio; Polarization mode, cross-polarization discrimination rate; Directivity coefficient, antenna gain; Main lobe, side lobe, side lobe suppression, zero point filling, beam downtilt... Circuit parameters Voltage standing wave ratio VSWR, reflection coefficient Γ, return loss RL; Input impedance Zin, transmission loss TL; Isolation degree Iso; Passive third-order intermodulation PIM3… Antenna side lobe Horizontal beam width Front-to-back ratio: specify the ratio of the forward radiation power to the antenna and the backward radiation power within ±30° The relationship between gain and antenna size and beam width Flatten the "tire", the more concentrated the signal, the higher the gain, the larger the antenna size, and the narrower the beam width; Several key points of antenna gain: The antenna is a passive device and cannot generate energy. Antenna gain is just the ability to effectively concentrate energy to radiate or receive electromagnetic waves in a specific direction. The gain of the antenna is produced by the superposition of the elements. The higher the gain, the longer the antenna length. The gain is increased by 3dB and the volume is doubled. The higher the antenna gain, the better the directivity, the more concentrated the energy, and the narrower the lobe. 1.5 Radiation parameters Polarization: Refers to the trajectory or changing state of the electric field vector in space. 1.6 Circuit parameters Return loss In this example, the return loss is 10log(10/0.5) = 13dB VSWR (Standing Wave Ratio) is another measure of this phenomenon Isolation: It is the ratio of the signal received by one polarization of the other polarization https://www.whwireless.com/
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  • Aquatic Black Technology
    Aquatic Black Technology 2021-02-09
    Aquatic Black Technology-IoT Hub's aquaculture intelligent monitoring system solution    The aquaculture industry is very strict in terms of environmental data requirements and sensitivity, and needs to pay attention to various data at all times. With the development of industrial Internet, Internet of Things, cloud computing and other technologies, the aquaculture industry can use these technologies to master various equipment data in real time, greatly improve the efficiency of the aquaculture industry's production, management, and service links, and accelerate the entire industry Upgrade and transformation of the chain. Project Background    A large aquaculture enterprise has several fisheries scattered across the country, and each fishery has one or more breeding equipment (controlled by PLC). However, existing equipment cannot upload status information in time and return it to the service center of the enterprise, resulting in poor controllability of the production process; water quality information cannot be updated in real time, resulting in increased production costs; equipment cannot be remotely controlled, resulting in high labor costs. The client hopes to establish a set of real-time monitoring system, which can upload on-site information in real time and grasp the situation in time.    aquaculture system monitoring solution based on IoT Hub    The IoT Hub Industrial Internet Empowerment Platform team designed an intelligent monitoring system for aquaculture based on customer pain points.   Equipment monitoring system architecture diagram The entire system IoT Hub industrial Internet empowerment platform, connected to the PLC of the aquaculture plant through the edge controller, transmits the field data to each local IoT Hub? server via WIFI or 4G, and finally each local IoT Hub uploads the data to the IoT The Hub Industrial Internet Empowerment Platform summarizes.   1 Features of IoT Hub Industrial Internet Empowerment Platform   ■ Provide powerful data storage capabilities   ■ Provide rich background service functions   ■ Provide flexible deployment methods   ■ Provide secure data protection   2 Features of Edge Controller   ■ Quick access to equipment   ■ Fast data analysis   ■ Results are uploaded quickly   ■ Remote control: You can remotely control the work of key equipment through mobile phones and tablets, requiring specific permissions.   ■ Timing trigger: The equipment can be controlled regularly through the management system and requires specific permissions.   ■ Real-time monitoring and alarm: real-time monitoring of various key data, when the parameter value reaches a dangerous value, the system sends a mobile phone text message to the manager.   ■...
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  • What is edge computing (MEC)?
    What is edge computing (MEC)? 2021-01-04
    What is edge computing (MEC)? To avoid the dullness of technology, let me give you an example. There is a very intelligent animal in nature-octopus. It has the highest IQ among invertebrates. Whether it is for escape or predation, it has many long tentacles that can be used freely. Scientists have found that the tentacles of the octopus are full of neurons, which can handle many actions independently. The octopus's brain only accounts for 40% of the processing. The other processing power is distributed on its 8 tentacles, which greatly enhances its strain processing. ability. If the human body is the central processing method of the brain, and 99% of its capabilities require the brain to respond, the octopus is a distributed processing system, and 60% relies on its "small brain" processing distributed in the antennae. Yes, this is the principle of edge computing. The calculation and processing capabilities are submerged to the edge closest to the business to complete. Most of them do not need to interact with the core network, and a few are interoperable with the core network. This is edge computing. The concept of Multi-Access Edge Computing (MEC) technology was first proposed in 2009 on the cloudlet computing platform developed by Carnegie Mellon University. In 2014, the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) formally defined the basic concepts of MEC and established the MEC specification working group to start related standardization work. In 2016, ETSI extended this concept to multi-access edge computing, and extended the application of edge computing in mobile cellular networks to other wireless access networks (such as Wi-Fi). Under the promotion of ETSI, other international and Chinese standardization organizations including 3GPP and China Communications Standards Association (CCSA) have also initiated related work. Currently, MEC has evolved into one of the important technologies of 5G mobile communication systems. Why does 5G have to use edge computing? In the 5G era, mobile communication has shifted from the initial communication between people to the communication between people and things to the communication between things. AR/VR, Internet of Things, industrial automation, unmanned driving and other services have been introduced in large numbers, bringing network requirements for high bandwidth, low latency, and large connections. New services have increasingly demanding requirements for bandwidth, delay, and security, and the centralized deployment of traditional cloud computing has been unable to meet service requirements. Let's take a look at the following "5G flower" that can reflect the vision of 5G capabilities. We can see that the key capability requirements of the 5G vision are almost the pursuit of the ultimate, so that many people in the industry have always questioned: Can such a demanding 5G key capability really be realized? For example, how to realize the key capability of end-to-end delay of 1 milliseco...
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