5G 4G 3G M2M and IoT antenna News
  • How to choose the antenna?
    How to choose the antenna? 2020-08-05
    How to choose the antenna? Expected to finish reading in 8 minutes Antenna Selection Guide An antenna is a device that radiates radio frequency signals from a transmission line into the air or receives it from the air onto a transmission line. It can also be regarded as an impedance converter or an energy converter, which converts the guided wave propagated on the transmission line. Transform into electromagnetic waves propagating in an unbounded medium, or vice versa. For the design of a wireless transceiver device used in a radio frequency system, the design and selection of the antenna is an important part. A good antenna system can achieve the best communication distance. The size of the same type of antenna is proportional to the wavelength of the radio frequency signal. The lower the frequency, the larger the antenna required. Antenna classification Antennas can be divided into external antennas and internal antennas by their installation positions. Those installed inside the device are called internal antennas, and those installed outside the device are called external antennas. For small-sized products such as handheld devices, wearable designs, and smart homes, built-in antennas are commonly used, with high integration and beautiful appearance. The Internet of Things and smart hardware products need to transmit data online, so they all need to use antennas. The smaller the space and the more frequency bands, the more complicated the antenna design is. The external antennas are generally standard products. You can use the antennas of the required frequency bands without debugging, plug and play. For example, express cabinets, vending machines, etc., generally use magnetic external antennas, which can be attached to the iron shell. These antennas cannot be placed in a tin cabinet. Metal will shield the antenna signal, so they can only be placed outside. This article focuses on the classification and selection methods of the antenna, and introduces the relevant information of the antenna. 1.1 External antenna The external antennas can be divided into omnidirectional antennas and directional antennas according to the radiation angle and direction of the radiation field. Space radiation pattern of omnidirectional antenna Omnidirectional antenna: that is, it shows uniform radiation in 360° on the horizontal pattern, which is commonly referred to as non-directional, and shows a beam with a certain width on the vertical pattern. In general, the smaller the lobe width, The greater the gain. External omnidirectional antennas mainly include sucker antennas, fiberglass antennas and glue stick antennas. Directional antenna spatial radiation pattern Directional antenna: refers to an antenna that emits and receives electromagnetic waves particularly strong in one or several specific directions, while transmitting and receiving electromagnetic waves in other directions is zero or extremely small. The purpose of using a directional transmitting antenna i...
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  • How do you deploy an industrial wireless network?
    How do you deploy an industrial wireless network? July 20,2020.
    How do you deploy an industrial wireless network? --These not inconsiderable details determine its success or failure! Expected to finish reading in 5 minutes   In industrial facilities, the use of wireless networks can create enormous value and help companies save significant costs. With well-thought-out and properly designed implementations, it is possible to provide information from point A to point B with the same reliability as a wired network. It saves money and brings more convenience to users. There are many variables and unknowns to consider when designing a wireless network: the people who make up the network may not be able to "see" the whole picture.   With a wired network, people can know where data is going and what else is "in the network" and can predict network performance. The same is true for wireless systems if the right steps are taken in the design and verification process. When you start designing a wireless network, it is important to define the who, what, when, where, and why associated with the device.   Who will support and maintain the wireless network?   When discussing the implementation of a wireless network for the first time, it is important to find out who is supporting the project and who will use it and be responsible for maintaining the network. Because these people may come from completely different groups, they may have different views on how to implement a wireless network.   Will the engineering team or the management team be supporting the project? Each team has a different goal. The engineering team aims to find the best solution to a problem, and does not necessarily focus on the cost of the system while it solves the problem. The management team may be more focused on the return on investment and cost of the system. To make the design process more manageable, you need to understand the composition of the teams that can be involved (or sometimes both). And how your needs can be met with a logical solution is very important. Figure 1: Typically, TO engineers prefer to have access to data in a visual and readable form in order to interpret it effectively. Image credit: Phoenix Contact   For the daily work of the device, Operations Technology (OT) engineers focus on application-related network data. They want to access data visually and legibly so that it can be interpreted effectively, for example, the Human Machine Interface (HMI) screens or web pages of Ethernet devices. Information technology (IT) engineers are also interested in the data, but more interested in the raw formats. They want to be able to use everyday tools to manage, maintain and configure wireless systems. When managing these functions, IT engineers prefer to use a command line interface rather than a network administrator.   Identifying Wireless Network Scenarios   In the process of designing a wireless network, the details of specific application scenarios...
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  • Build 5g microwave back to become a sharp weapon
    Build 5g microwave back to become a sharp weapon 2020-06-22
    Build 5g microwave back to become a sharp weapon Expected to finish reading in 8 minutes From a global perspective, microwave back propagation has become a mainstream way of back propagation. In 2017, sky light research, a third-party market research institution, published the article "5g retransmission, microwave surpasses expectations". It points out that 50% - 60% of mobile base stations in the world are retransmitted by microwave at present. With the acceleration of 5g deployment, the network capacity, complexity and delay requirements are higher, and the number of mobile base stations will increase. Microwave is an important transmission method in the fiber-free scenario, With the evolution of 5g, it will continue to expand. Ericsson microwave outlook released in 2018 mentioned that the solution of optical fiber and microwave integration is the mainstream way of 4G evolution and 5g return. By 2023, the 40% base stations will be back to wireless transmission. If China, Chinese mainland, Taiwan, Korea and Japan are excluded, the proportion of wireless backhaul will be as high as 65% by 2023, because there are a large number of 4G base stations in Northeast Asia, and their return depends mainly on optical fiber, which will reduce the proportion of global wireless backhaul. As mentioned in the report 5g wireless return issued by ETSI in November 2018, wireless return technology has been applied to 50% of base station connections in the world, and it is obvious that wireless return has become an important scheme for 5g rapid deployment and economy. There are some shortcomings in microwave transmission mode, mainly sight distance transmission, and when there is too much moisture or dust in the air, the quality of microwave signal will be reduced. Of course, this does not affect the share of microwave echo in overseas market. It can be seen that the 4G era microwave echo is the mainstream echo mode, and the 5g era will continue this mode. However, the inherent characteristics of 5g challenge the microwave return, such as the increase of bandwidth, the scarcity of public frequency band, and the strictness of network experience. Previously, the global microwave return mainly used the 6-42ghz band, with an average return capacity between 50Mbps and 500mbps. Obviously, this is unable to meet the demand of base station return capacity in 5g era. Therefore, E-band begins to appear, i.e. 70ghz-80ghz band. E-band really provides a strong support for 5g's return. In May 2019, Deutsche Telekom and Ericsson cooperated to achieve 100gbps return rate on the 1.5km E-band microwave link for the first time, which is 10 times of the current commercial microwave return rate and can meet the demand of 5g return. Huawei occupies the largest share of the microwave transmission market, with a 29% share in the fourth quarter of 2019. Earlier, Ren Zhengfei mentioned in an interview that "there are not many microwave manufacturers in the world, and Huawei is the most advan...
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  • Theory and application of high precision positioning
    Theory and application of high precision positioning 2020-06-02
    Theory and application of high precision positioning Expected to finish reading in 12 minutes From mobile Internet to Internet of things, location is a basic and indispensable information, but from the refined industry application requirements, only higher precision location information can bring higher value, people can more accurately know the location of things, know the specific location of people, and better manage enterprises, personnel or materials. For example, to ensure the personal safety of tunnel construction personnel, to assist the prison to build a global and visual supervision platform; to improve the safety assurance efficiency of the petrochemical industry; to help upgrade the intelligent management of the construction site. However, the above industries have high requirements on ultra-high positioning accuracy, large capacity, low delay and high refresh rate. Location and navigation technology is responsible for providing real-time motion information of carrier (such as autonomous vehicle), including carrier position, speed, attitude, acceleration, angular speed, etc. Autopilot often adopts the way of multi-sensor fusion positioning. This paper mainly introduces the application of IMU in automatic driving positioning. Working principle of high precision positioning At the perception level of unmanned vehicle, the importance of positioning is self-evident. Unmanned vehicle needs to know its exact position relative to the environment, and there can be no more than 10cm error in positioning here. GPS can provide absolute positioning of meter level for vehicles, differential GPS or RTK GPS can provide absolute positioning of centimeter level for vehicles, but not all sections can get good GPS signals at all times. Therefore, in the field of automatic driving, the output of RTK GPS is generally integrated with the sensors of IMU and automobile (such as wheel speedometer, steering wheel angle sensor, etc.). The full name of IMU is inertial measurement unit, which is usually composed of gyroscope, accelerator and algorithm processing unit. Through the measurement of acceleration and rotation angle, we can get the self motion track. We call the traditional IMU and the system combined with the vehicle body, GPS and other information fusion algorithms as the generalized IMU for automatic driving. The emergence of this technology makes up for the lack of GPS positioning, and the two complement each other, enabling autopilot to get the most accurate location information. At present, the most widely used positioning method of unmanned vehicle is the integration of global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS). Integrated navigation involves complex coordinate system transformation, which requires initial calibration of the inertial navigation system. Generally, the reference navigation system (such as GNSS) is used to give the inertial navigation system an initial position value (the purpose is to establish the initia...
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